By Shiva Kumar, M. Jamal Deen

Fiber-optic conversation structures have complicated dramatically during the last 4 a long time, because the period of copper cables, leading to reasonably cheap and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the spine of the web and long-distance telecommunication. with out it we'd no longer benefit from the merits of high-speed net, or low-rate overseas mobile calls.

This e-book introduces the elemental techniques of fiber-optic communique in a pedagogical means. the real mathematical effects are derived through first ideas instead of mentioning examine articles. additionally, actual interpretations and real-world analogies are supplied to assist scholars clutch the elemental concepts.

Key Features:

- Lucid clarification of key themes reminiscent of fibers, lasers, and photodetectors.
- Includes contemporary advancements resembling coherent communique and electronic sign processing.
- Comprehensive therapy of fiber nonlinear transmission.
- Worked examples, routines, and answers.
- Accompanying site with PowerPoint slides and numerical experiments in MATLAB.

Intended essentially for senior undergraduates and graduates learning fiber-optic communications, the ebook is usually appropriate as a qualified source for researchers operating within the box of fiber-optic communications.

**Read Online or Download Fiber Optic Communications: Fundamentals and Applications PDF**

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**Extra resources for Fiber Optic Communications: Fundamentals and Applications**

**Example text**

If the fiber medium has 46 Fiber Optic Communications no defect, there would be no reflection occurring within the fiber and the assumption of a forward-propagating mode is valid. From the left-hand side of Eq. 36), we obtain ( ) [ ] r2 d2 R 1 dR 1 d2 Φ + . 40) + r2 k02 n2 (r) − ???? 2 = − 2 R dr r dr Φ d????2 The left-hand side of Eq. 40) is a function of r only and the right-hand side is a function of ???? only. As before, each of these terms should be a constant. Let this constant be m2 : − 1 d2 Φ = m2 , Φ d????2 Φ(????) = B1 eim???? + B2 e−im???? .

21 Cx G D F Refraction of a light wave. Therefore, Eq. 144) becomes n1 sin ????1 = n2 sin ????2 . 146) This is called Snell’s law. If n2 > n1 , sin ????1 > sin ????2 and ????1 > ????2 . This explains why light bends toward the normal in a denser medium, as shown in Fig. 18. When n1 > n2 , from Eq. 146), we have ????2 > ????1 . As the angle of incidence ????1 increases, the angle of refraction ????2 increases too. 147) or sin ????c = n2 ∕n1 . 148) The angle ????c is called the critical angle. If the angle of incidence is increased beyond the critical angle, the incident optical ray is reflected completely as shown in Fig.

87) = Ex0 cos (????t − kz), where ???? is the velocity of light in the medium, f is the frequency, ???? = ????∕f is the wavelength, ???? = 2????f is the angular frequency, k = 2????∕???? is the wavenumber, and k is also called the propagation constant. 88) or equivalently ???? . k Since Hy also satisfies the wave equation (Eq. 69)), it can be written as ????= Hy = Hy0 cos (????t − kz). From Eq. 58), we have ????Hy ????z 2 If the mirror is a perfect conductor, ???? = ????. = −???? ????Ex . 91) 16 Fiber Optic Communications Using Eq.