Download Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.) PDF

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a vital function in lots of disciplines, significantly machine Programming, ordinary and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, synthetic Intelligence and desktop studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This e-book first presents the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in quite a few disciplines through evaluating either commonalities and variations. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the proposal of abstraction simply acceptable via the advent of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and purposes. it's the influence of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, advanced platforms and desktop studying which creates the middle of the booklet. A basic framework, in line with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case experiences: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.

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In a sense, the whole language is an abstraction, because it substitutes a “name” to the real thing. And this is another way of considering abstraction in language. By naming an entity, we associate to the name a bundle of attributes and functions characterizing the specific instances of the entity. For example, when we say car, we think to a closed vehicle with 4 wheels and a steering wheel, even though many details may be left unspecified, such as the color, the actual shape, and so on. The ontological status of the “universal” names has been debated, especially in the late Medieval time, with positions ranging from the one of Roscelin,7 who claimed that universals are nothing more than verbal expressions, to that of Guillaume de Champeaux,8 who, on the contrary, sustained that the universals are the real thing.

Let us now introduce examples of procedural and data abstraction in order to clarify these notions. 1 Suppose that we want to write a procedure for searching whether an element y appears in a vector X without specifying the actual program to do it. We can define the following abstract procedure: pname = Search(X, y) returns({true, false}) requires X is a vector, y is of the same type as the elements of X modifies ∅ effects Searches through X , and returns true if y occurs in X , else returns false end pname Data abstraction, on the other hand, consists in defining a type of data and the operations that manipulate it.

A violent color, but one that stimulates interiorization. At the same time a color and a non-color. When the light is reflected on it, it is transformed, transmuted. 6 Cognition 31 Fig. 5 Painting by Pierre Soulages (2008). Bernard Jacobson Gallery (Printed with the author’s permission) Fig. 6 Studies by Theo van Doesbourg (1919). 6 Cognition Abstraction is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is safe to say that without abstraction no high level thinking would be possible. According to Brooks [81], “Cognitive Psychology has a huge interest in the whole range of issues to do with 32 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines the abstract”.

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