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By Gary Clemente

This ebook has been written with the aim of overlaying all features approximately English Phonology.

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In Old English, long vowels were reduced to short vowels (and sometimes deleted entirely) and short vowels were very often deleted. All remaining vowels were reduced to only the vowels /u/, /a/ and /e/, and sometimes /o/. ) 2. In Middle English, almost all unstressed vowels were reduced to /ə/; then, final /ə/ was dropped. The main exception is Old English -iġ, which becomes Modern English -y. 3. Unstressed vowels in Modern English other than those spelled are due either to compounds or to borrowed words (especially from Latin and Old French).

Consonant allophones The sounds marked in parentheses in the table above are allophones: • • [dʒ] is an allophone of /j/ occurring after /n/ and when geminated o For example, senġan "to singe" is [sendʒɑn] < /senjɑn/ < *sangjan o and bryċġ "bridge" is [bryddʒ] < /bryjj/ < *bruggjō < *bruɣjō [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ occurring before /k/ and /ɡ/ For example, hring "ring" is [hriŋɡ]; [ŋ] did not occur alone word-finally in Old English as it does in Modern English. [v, ð, z] are allophones of /f, θ, s/ respectively, occurring between vowels or voiced consonants.

NOTE: The Old English words in this table are given in their Anglian form, since this is the form that underlies Modern English. However, standard Old English was based on the West Saxon dialect, and when the two dialects differ, the West Saxon form is indicated with a WS in parentheses following the Anglian form. NOTE: In this table, abbreviations are used as follows: • • • • • • • • PIE = Proto-Indo-European PreG = Pre-Germanic1 PG = Proto-Germanic OE = Old English WS = West Saxon (dialect of Old English) ME = Middle English NE = Modern English GA = General American (dialect of • • • • • • • • indic.

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