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By Robert C. Galgano

Feast of Souls explores local peoples' responses to Spanish makes an attempt to problem and exchange conventional religious practices in Florida and New Mexico. In those areas, Franciscan missions have been the first mechanism for either religious and secular colonization within the 17th century.

By 1700, there have been simply approximately 1,000 Spaniards in Florida and 3,000 in New Mexico; the newbies depended on Indians for capability converts, workers, buying and selling companions, and armed forces allies. yet, the Spaniards' very presence between indigenous peoples created epidemiological, political, fabric, and monetary crises in local communities.

Natives' reactions in New Mexico and Florida different largely yet they still sought to regulate their very own destinies. a few teams embraced the conquerors' choices all alone phrases and a few rejected them completely. a few even fled or rebelled, as in Florida in 1656 and New Mexico in 1680. Sifting via Spanish colonial debts and smooth archaeological and architectural investigations, Robert Galgano will pay equivalent recognition to the perspectives of the novices and the natives whereas emphasizing the Franciscans' views over these of the Spanish political management.

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Extra info for Feast of Souls: Indians and Spaniards in the Seventeenth-Century Missions of Florida and New Mexico

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Song was as important in the supplication of the spirits. Winter dances invigorated the sun, redistributed foods and goods to needy villagers during lean months, and guaranteed that animal spirits would permit fruitful hunts. Spring rites welcomed the return of life to regional flora, urged the spirits to bring rain, and ensured the proper beginning to the sowing season. Summer rituals brought more rain and gave continued strength to the sun to nourish native crops and to ensure the orb’s 28 Figure 2: Hlauuma (North House) in the Northern Tiwa Pueblo of Taos.

The minor friars often vied with parish priests for followers and alms. Yet the Franciscans, who owned nothing and controlled few churches, depended on the generosity of their parochial counterparts for the instruments of the mass and the implements of the faith. 25 From the late thirteenth to the sixteenth century, the Franciscans gradually embraced a more practical monastic life. The friars adopted a modest security in buildings established for their order, accumulated libraries of learning, and enjoyed the benefits of money even if they did not handle the finances themselves.

Different Paths 17 Figure 1: Reconstructed Apalachee council house (foreground) and chief ’s house at Talimali. Photograph courtesy of Christopher R. Versen. endeavors, and threatened punishment. While asleep, Indians conversed with the spiritual world and could act independently on what their dreams meant. Natives also believed in truth revealed though the words of the possessed. 10 Indians concerned about the affairs of their own lives actively courted spiritual powers to solve their problems.

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