By Ishtla Singh, Mari Jones
In this student-friendly textual content, Jones and Singh discover the phenomenon of language switch, with a selected specialise in the social contexts of its incidence and attainable motivations, together with audio system’ intentions and attitudes.
Presenting new or little-known info, the authors draw a contrast among "unconscious" and "deliberate" swap. The dialogue on "unconscious" swap considers phenomena equivalent to the emergence and obsolescence of person languages, while the sections on "deliberate" switch concentrate on problems with language making plans, together with the concepts of language revival and revitalization events. there's additionally a close exploration of what's arguably the main severe example of "deliberate" swap; language invention for real-world use.
Examining an intensive diversity of language occasions, Exploring Language Change makes a transparent, yet usually missed contrast among techniques resembling language coverage and making plans, and language revival and revitalization. additionally featured are a couple of case stories which reveal that real-life language use is usually even more advanced than theoretical abstractions may possibly suggest.
This is a key textual content for college students on quite a few classes, together with sociolinguistics, ancient linguistics and language coverage and planning.
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Extra info for Exploring Language Change
This type of borrowing, then, is due to a ‘deﬁciency’ in the native vocabulary – termed a referential (or lexical ) gap – and is by no means a recent phenomenon: during the Industrial Revolution, French borrowed a great deal of terminology from English (such as rail, wagon and other railway terms) to denote objects which were introduced from Britain at this time. a Lexical borrowings in French Century 12th Arabic 20 Italian 2 Spanish Portuguese Dutch 16 Germanic 5 English 8 Slavic 2 Turkish 1 Persian 2 Hindu Malaysian Japanese/Chinese Greek 8 Hebrew 9 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 22 7 36 50 5 23 12 2 35 5 11 26 79 11 1 22 11 6 1 2 2 41 67 32 3 10 45 377 10 14 1 5 5 7 5 2 30 188 103 23 52 27 67 6 9 5 4 10 25 2 2 24 101 43 8 24 33 134 11 6 3 8 6 21 4 1 70 320 85 19 32 23 14 4 13 1 1 4 36 1 2 1 1 3 5 32 Externally motivated change However, a referential gap is not the only possible motivation for lexical borrowing.
Diskite ‘to discuss’ cf. edike ‘to educate’ cf. imigre ‘to immigrate’ cf. b HFC -syon forms not attested in French dekoupasyon ‘dividing wall, screen’ cf. dekoupe ‘to cut up, to carve’ eklerasyon ‘enlightenment’ cf. eklere ‘to enlighten’ levasyon ‘education, upbringing’ cf. leve ‘to educate, to rear’ pansyon ‘anxiety’ cf. panse ‘to think’ vivasyon ‘conviviality’ cf. viv ‘to live’ (after DeGraff 2001: 65) It is worth noting that some such HFC formations have been dismissed by Valdman as ‘pseudo-French’; in other words, as the hypercorrect product of HFC speakers who have little or no knowledge of French.
Iii) Bumbye the baby ma-ke die dead. ’ (iv) This cigarette goin kill you . . bumbye the stick poke you the stick kill you. ‘These cigarettes will kill you . . ’ (adapted from Velupillai 2003: 56–7; 63) While all the examples indicate events that will take place at some future point in time, Velupillai (2003: 62) argues that bumbye also ‘seems to contain an element of remoteness’. iv, where the speaker expresses both the certainty of the addressee’s death by smoking (goin kill ) and the fact that while it may not happen in the near future, it is inevitable.