By Helmut Vedder, Christian Behl (auth.), Dr. Dr. Niels Bergemann, Prof. Dr. Anita Riecher-Rössler (eds.)
A variety of experiences, more often than not concentrating on estrogen substitute treatment in girls, have stated invaluable activities of those hormones on a variety of neurobiological and neuropathological parameters in health and wellbeing and ailment. contemporary examine has fascinated by gender modifications and there's expanding facts that estrogens exert protecting results in schizophrenia. Hormonal fluctuations or loss of estrogen could raise the danger of melancholy between susceptible girls. remedy of melancholy with estrogen may perhaps stabilize and fix disrupted homeostasis – as in the course of post-partum, premenstrual, or perimenopausal stipulations – and act as a psychomodulator to offset vulnerability to dysphoric temper whilst estrogen degrees are considerably reduced, as when it comes to postmenopausal ladies. stories at the impact of estrogens on Alzheimer’s disorder are nonetheless really debatable, they do, in spite of the fact that, facilitate the speculation that estrogens could have a enhancing influence at the onset and process advert, at the very least in subgroups of patients.
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Extra info for Estrogen Effects in Psychiatric Disorders
Am J Physiol 239: E96-E102 Perillo B, Sasso A, Abbondanza C, Palumbo G (2000) 17beta-estradiol inhibits apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, inducing bcl-2 expression via two estrogen-responsive elements present in the coding sequence. Mol Cell Biol 20: 2890-2901 Piotrowski J, Pietras T, Kurmanowska Z, Nowak D, Marczak J, Marks-Konczalik J, Mazerant P (1996) Effect of paraquat intoxication ond ambroxol treatment on hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation in selected organs of the rat. J Appl Toxicol 16: 501-507 Pozzo-Miller LD, Inoue T, Murphy DD (1999) Estradiol increases spine density and NMDA-dependent Ca2 ± transisents in spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices.
Just like in chronic hypoestrogenism, we cannot identify the direction, let alone the cause of the association between this acute estrogen deficiency state and the psychotic episodes. However, as there is strong evidence that estrogens influence the dopaminergic system, it is intriguing to speculate that some schizophrenic episodes of women predisposed to schizophrenia are induced by acute gonadal dysfunction with decreased estrogen production. The causes for the latter might be manifold, ranging from premenstrual to postnatal and (pre-)menopausal drop in estrogen levels and even to surgical loss of ovaries or pharmacological suppression of physiological estrogen production.
Steroids 13: 163-177 Kruman II, Pedersen WA, Springer JE, Mattson MP (1999) ALS-linked Cu/Zn-SOD mutation increases vulnerability of motor neurons to excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving increased oxidative stress and perturbed calcium homeostasis. Exp Neurol 160: 28-39 Lammers CH, D’Souza U, Qin ZH, Lee SH, Yajima S, Mouradian MM (1999) Regulation of striatal dopamine receptors by estrogen. Synapse 34: 222-227 Leist M, Nicotera P (1998) Calcium and neuronal death. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 132: 79-125 Lezoualc’h F, Behl C (1998) Transcription factor NF-kB: friend or foe of neurons?