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By Nancy Christie

In the early a part of this century the mummy used to be the educator and ethical centre of the Canadian family. among the onset of the 1st global warfare and the advance of the fashionable social safety kingdom within the Forties, besides the fact that, an ideological shift happened. whereas Canada continued the consequences of 2 international wars, industrialization, and financial and political crises, welfare entitlements according to kin replica have been changed through country rules that promoted paid labour within the office. To a state gripped with new and nice anxieties, the mummy now not seemed able to functioning as its vitally adhesive strength.

The necessity of stabilizing the paternal place of the daddy as breadwinner so one can maintain the kinfolk and help monetary growth grew to become the steadily dominant view. even though this considering successfully helped a part of the inhabitants in attaining monetary autonomy, its harmful results have been huge achieving. ladies, unskilled labourers, and the chronically indigent have been left resourceless.

The author's rationalization of gender's position within the perception of recent Canadian welfare coverage takes present scholarship into novel territory. Her analyses of the views of maternal feminists, priests, equipped labour, businessmen, college social scientists, welfare directors, social staff, and govt coverage makers are interesting to learn and give a contribution drastically to our knowing of the present debates in welfare coverage making.

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Extra resources for Engendering The State: Family, Work, and Welfare in Canada

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22 In Ryerson's interpretation of ideal citizenship, individualism was socially disruptive (rather than the leaven of social virtue, as later evangelicals would have it); it was also the precursor to greater excesses of liberty (which he explicitly defined as female). 23 By the late nineteenth century, such hierarchical, mechanistic visions of society, with their emphasis on political institutions as the chief vehicles of moral virtue, had given way to a less politically defined conception of society, one that was animated more directly by evan- 22 Engendering the State gelical precepts of individual free will and moral individualism.

J. '18 While it must be recognized that a concern for social order pervaded the language of reform in this period, such fears had also been cited by education reformers of the early nineteenth century, who made it their quest to replace parental responsibility with the parental authority of the State. However, by the early twentieth century the central pivot of debate was not over the goal of reform, which was generally agreed to be social order. '19 In this vein, fierce arguments erupted within the middle class over whether institutions such as schools, orphanages, and reformatories were better vehicles than the family for properly developing that most important moral attribute - individual spiritual responsibility, upon which modern society was thought to depend for its smooth development.

Hamilton concluded in her 1918 article for the Canadian Home Journal, the solutions for all social problems lay with the reformation of men. 55 However, the ideology of maternalism expanded far beyond immediately feminist concerns, and by the First World War had thoroughly grafted itself onto a wide range of social reform currents. Maternalism became part and parcel of a larger transformation within public culture - one that led away from an emphasis on the intellect and toward a conception of political economy that recognized the greater authority of the affections in harnessing disruptive modern social forces into a more peaceful unity.

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