Download Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and by Martin L. Hoffman PDF

By Martin L. Hoffman

Modern theories have more often than not excited about both the behavioral, cognitive or emotional dimensions of prosocial ethical improvement. This quantity offers the 1st complete account of prosocial ethical improvement in teenagers. The book's concentration is empathy's contribution to altruism and compassion for others in actual, mental, or fiscal misery; emotions of guilt over harming somebody; emotions of anger at others who do damage; emotions of injustice whilst others don't obtain their due. additionally highlighted are the mental procedures excited by empathy's interplay with yes parental behaviors that foster ethical internalization in youngsters and the mental strategies taken with empathy's relation to summary ethical rules.

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Extra resources for Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice

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21 Empathy and Moral Development The universality of the transgression model - the role of induction in the socialization of empathy-based transgression guilt and guilt's functioning as a prosocial moral motive - is on less firm grounds. Adults the world over must find it necessary at times to change children's behavior against their will, but most of the empirical evidence for induction's role in transgression guilt and moral internalization is based on white middle-class Americans. I present the case for tentatively concluding, until the research says otherwise, that induction contributes positively and power assertion negatively to transgression guilt, moral internalization, and prosocial behavior at least in nuclear-family-organized societies where discipline encounters, power assertion, and induction are frequent and transgression guilt and moral internalization are meaningful concepts.

I also suggest ways to reduce empathic bias and help increase motivation for prosocial action across ethnic divides. Some of these methods may with modification be useful for combining empathic morality, reciprocity, and justice. In chapter 13 I note first of all that it is empathy's amenity to 22 Introduction and Overview cognitive influence, stressed throughout this book, that gives a significant role to socialization and empathy-based moral education. Some suggestions for intervention follow directly from the earlier chapters.

The next question is: What about feedback? Does the imitation-based activation of a person's facial and vocal expression lead to afferent feedback that in turn affects his or her subjective emotional experience from one moment to the next? 2. Feedback. Charles Darwin (1877) was thefirstto state the feedback hypothesis ("He who gives way to violent gestures will increase 39 Innocent Bystander rage; he who does not control the signs of fear will experience fear in a greater degree/7 p. 365). William James (1893) went further, postulating that feedback was the key to all emotional experience.

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