Download Electrical Breakdown and Discharges in Gases: Part A by F. Llewellyn-Jones (auth.), Erich E. Kunhardt, Lawrence H. PDF

By F. Llewellyn-Jones (auth.), Erich E. Kunhardt, Lawrence H. Luessen (eds.)

The complex research Institute on Breakdown and Discharges in Gases used to be held in Les Arcs, France, June 28 to July 10, 1981. the item of the Institute used to be to supply a wide yet compre­ hensive presentation of some of the issues within the box of Gaseous electronics. to accomplish this objective, a few lectures, seminars, and panel discussions have been scheduled. each one subject was once built via instructional and/or assessment lectures, and taken to the current country of the subject via seminars and panel discussions. this system of themes and audio system used to be chosen with the help of the advisory committee composed of: J. A. Rees, ecu Coordinator, England; M. Goldman, French Coordinator, France; A. H. Guenther, united states; M. Kristiansen, united states; and A. V. Phelps, united states. the main memorable element of the Institute used to be the sustained excessive curiosity of the college and members for the 2 week interval. The day-by-day time table used to be tough: 5 hours of lectures, hours of seminars and one among dialogue. those classes have been frequently prolonged due to presentation by way of the contributors of im­ proptu seminars. The discussions have been excessive. Majestic }10nt Blanc supplied the backdrop for the lecture corridor, and those atmosphere and the elements contributed to the final optimistic temper. It was once a superb party. The lectures and seminars were amassed into volumes.

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Extra info for Electrical Breakdown and Discharges in Gases: Part A Fundamental Processes and Breakdown

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TIlis is due to the large difference of field intensity at the electrodes which can affect the primary and electrode secondary processes. An electron avalanche proceeding outwards from a negative small electrode moves under a weakening field towards the anode, but when the smaller electrode is the anode, the electron avalanche moves under an increasing field. Similarly, all positive ions formed in the gap proceed to the cathode, but when this is the smaller electrode the ions move under a stronger field, so that in gases at pressures when y = ¢(E/p), then y should be higher at the smaller 35 THEORIES OF ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF GASES electrode than at the larger.

This radial 26 F. LLEWLL YN-JONES field was assumed to be strong enough to draw into the avalanche head any electrons produced in the gas in the vicinity by highenergy photons created in the high field at the avalanche head. These electrons themselves initiate small avalanches in this radial field attracting them into the head and so increase the number of positive ions and, possibly, the radial field also. The result is a rapidly developing plasma to form a streamer extending first to one and then to the other electrode.

The next step in the investigation of these proposed new mechanisms for setting the criterion for static breakdown in uniform fields was to test experimentally the specific conclusions (a), (b), (c) and (d) above over the range of pd exceeding 200 torr cm, using high voltage ionization chambers, larger distances, and gas pressures up to atmospheric and higher. , the conditions specified previously should be-stringently followed, particularly for measurements of p and d and uniformity of field. Typical results obtained in air (Llewellyn-Jones and Parker, 1950, 1952) are shown in Fig.

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