By Usha V. Reddi and Sanjaya Mishra (eds.)
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Extra info for Educational Multimedia: A Handbook for Teacher-Developers
Retention of the information for the learners is also important for the instructional designer. Materials that provide more reinforcing activities help in the retention of what has been learnt. Cognitive psychologists like Piaget, Bruner and Ausubel contend that learning is an internal process that cannot be observed directly. Learners first remember and then retrieve information from the memory. Cognitivists emphasize on how the human mind works. They put particular emphasis on memory. The implication of this theory for the instructional designers is that they could use various techniques like chunking, mnemonics and meaningful organization of content and give practice for storing and retrieving information.
Learning gains are 56% greater, consistency of learning is 50-60% better and content retention is 25-50% higher'. Instructional multimedia focuses on what the learner is expected to do upon the complexion of the instruction. On the one hand, research on multimedia has established learning gains of significant order over the conventional instructional strategies, and on the other, has shown how instructional design is a tested, well-researched mechanism of enhancing human learning. By logical extrapolation, we can say that instructional multimedia can be more effective, if it is backed up by scientific instructional design.
Constructivists promote an open ended learning experience where methods and results of learning are not easily measured and are different for each learner. The implication of constructivism for the instructional designer is that the learners should attach themselves to the content domains. Constructivists believe that learning occurs when it is situated, contextual, problem based, social and authentic. Learning theories influence Instructional Design in a significant way. Learning theory becomes an essential element in the preparation of instructional design professionals because they permeate all dimensions of instructional design (Schiffman, 1991).