By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik
Cooperative habit has been one of many enigmas of evolutionary thought because the days of Charles Darwin. The contributions to this e-book learn the various elements of cooperative habit in primates and people as a few of the world's major specialists assessment and summarize the state-of-the-art of theoretical and empirical experiences of cooperation. This publication is hence the 1st to bridge the distance among parallel learn in primatology and experiences of people. Comparative as this process is, it highlights either universal rules and elements of human distinctiveness with recognize to cooperative habit.
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Additional resources for Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution
These include: (i) mother daughter rank reversals in baboons, (ii) paternal kin biases in behavior among baboons and macaques, and (iii) examples of unilateral altruism. 1 Mother-daughter rank reversals In cercopithecine primate species, females acquire ranks just below their mothers early in their adult lives. As young females mature, they usually rise in rank over their older sisters, creating matrilineal units in which mothers rank above all their daughters, and sisters are ranked in inverse order of their age (reviewed by Chapais 1992).
Females do not support paternal half-sisters at higher rates than non-kin, even though they selectively groom them (Widdig 2002). This pattern might be a byproduct of early biases in association patterns if mothers selectively associate with the fathers of their offspring. In baboons, mothers of newborn infants form close associations with adult males (reviewed by Palombit 1999) who may be the fathers of their infants. If two females associate with the same male at the same time, their infants may develop close ties.
Approximately 10% of females share reproduction with subordinate females for one or two years. Females are most likely to share breeding with their own daughters, less commonly with sisters, and rarely with unrelated females. Only mothers and daughters were both successful in rearing infants in the same season (Baker et al. 2002, cited in Dietz 2004). When sisters or unrelated females bred, only one female’s infants survived. Overall, the number of surviving infants per female is lower in groups in which two females breed than in groups in which only one female reproduces (Dietz & Baker 1993).