By Vladimir Alexandrovich Barkhash (auth.), Ch. Rees (eds.)
In 1965 a publication through P. Bartlett seemed lower than the identify "The Nonclassical Ions" 1). The ebook is a set of papers reprinted from quite a few journals. the various studies that experience seemed given that 2-22) are both antiquated (the booklet released in 1972 12) covers the literature more often than not ahead of 1968) or particularly biased (e.g., 3.4,10» on short 2, 7,11). This assessment makes an attempt to debate some of the issues of view at the "nonclassical" carbocations. the most aspect is to set up the relative function of "nonclassical" and "classical" ions in a variety of chemical tactics. the writer has P. Bartlett's recommendation 1) that once surroundings forth the achievements of the human brain one may still see how we got here to the fashionable realizing of a given challenge (" ... how we all know what we know"). the speculation of "nonclassical" ions deals a proof of many designated chemical, stereochemical and kinetic peculiarities of bicyclic compounds. It has elevated our wisdom on chemical bonds in carbocations by way of introducing electron-deficient bonds (as in boron hydrides). It has accounted for lots of rearrangements of strong cations. As a "side" end result our wisdom has been prolonged approximately ionization procedures in an answer, in addition to approximately stereochemical equipment. 2 major phrases of Nonclassical Carbocations In 1939 Hevell, Salas and Wilson 23) assumed an intermediate, "bridge" ion 2 to be shaped while camphene hydrochloride 1 is rearranged into isobornyl chloride three. This occurred 17 years after Meerwein first postulated the intermediate formation of "carbonium" ions in chemical reactions.
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Additional info for Contemporary Problems in Carbonium Ion Chemistry I/II
But since for the tertiary norbornyl derivatives this ratio has the same order of magnitude as for the secondary ones Brown asserts that the participation of the 1,6-bond cannot be the main reason for a high exo: endo rate ratio for the secondary norbornyl derivatives. Brown denies the possibility that the observed exo: endo rate ratio for 25 Vladimir Alexandrovich Barkhash tertiary systems could arise from the relief of steric strain upon solvolysis of exo-epimers. Table 5 shows that for tertiary systems the exo: endo rate ratio predicted only with steric factors agrees with experiments; in the case of secondary systems there is no such accordance.
Having applied the quantum relaxation theory to the intramolecular rearrangements in carbonium ions Fong 152) has concluded that the degenerate rearrangement of the 2-norbornyl cation may occur with a constant of about 10 12 sec -1. In the 2-norbornyl cation with its almost spherical symmetry the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement can occur without changing the position of the surrounding solvent molecules, with the minimum motion of the ion nuclei which decreases the activation barrier. The more a substituent causes a deviation from the spherical symmetry the higher becomes the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement barrier.
106 at 25°C. Thus according to Collins and Bowman, the value of the ex-effect does not depend on the stereochemistry of the leaving group. They consider the C 1 -C6 -bond to Pluticipate from so large a distance that this does not significantly disturb the C-H(C-D) bond oscillations. On the other hand, when the 2-norbornyl cation is formed from its il3 -cyclopentenylethyl precursor ("rc-route"), the more "flexible" structure of the precursor makes it possible for the participating group (double bond) to move closer to the reaction centre which results in a decreasing ex-effect for the exo isomer.