By Jose Morais, Luz Cary, Jesus Alegria, Paul Bertelson, Guy Woodruff, David Premack, J. Langford, V.M. Holmes, L. Jonathan Cohen, Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky, Andrew W. Ellis & Anthony F. Jorm
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Extra info for Cognition, Vol. 7, No. 4
He likes to prove his superiority by giving his students problems which are too hard for them. He was delighted today when not even Linda, the brightest in the class, could solve the problem he set. Target Sentences a) Linda’s teacher was delighted that she could solve the problem. b) The fact that Linda could solve the problem delighted her teacher. aTarget a) mentions assertion first and b) presupposition first. Subjects Forty undergraduate students at the University of Melbourne were paid for participating in the experiment.
Of course, even if the sender does not respond differentially, we could maintain that he was communicating intentionally to both parties - hoping to modify the behavior of the competitive trainer by treating him as though he were not hostile. Strategies of this complexity are not unknown in humans. Rut we cannot defend such assumptions, even for the human case, without additional evidence. In starting the study of intentionality, we must put aside such cases. As a first step, we need to show that the sender is sensitive to the behavior of the recipient, such that he can adjust the information he transmits more or less flexibly according to the demands of the situation.
All subjects learned to convey or withhold information, depending upon whether their goal in obtaining the food for themselves was in agreement (cooperation) or at odds (competition) with that of the trainer. Thus, the chimpanzees demonstrated an ability to take into account the nature of the recipient in choosing whether or not to impart information. Finally, two subjects consistently misinformed the competitive trainer, and these instances of deceit meet the most stringent behavioral criteria for intentional communication.