By Alain Bertaud, Bertrand Renaud
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Extra info for Cities without land markets: lessons of the failed socialist experiment, Parts 63-227
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Moreover, in China, the absence of large urban infrastructure and public transport investment plus severe underinvestment in housing until 1979 has led to more compact cities and reinforced the population density at the center. Yet, under the rapid urban investment of the last decade, the floor area ratio follows the Russian pattern and is higher in the periphery than in the center. Page 6 Following this process, the Russian command economy has generated an urban development process with two characteristic features of large land use inefficiencies: (1) Areas with obsolete land use occupy large amounts of the total city area, and (2) Households tend to be concentrated in the periphery with increasing densities further from the center and "historically" low densities in central areas.
Emerging Real Estate Prices 13 A. Synthetic Land Price Gradients and Normative Prices 13 B. Housing Privatization and Rapidly Emerging Implicit Land Price Gradients 13 IV. Managing the Transition: is the Soviet City Sustainable? 16 A. Market Prices and Affordability of Land Currently Occupied by Enterprises 16 B. Impact of the Transition to Markets on Housing and Services Areas 18 V. Components of Urban Land Reform 22 A. Land and Property Tenure 22 1. A Russian Overview 23 2. Current Tenure Forms 24 3.