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By Cicero, Tobias Reinhardt

Cicero's Topica is among the canonical texts on historical rhetorical concept. this is often the 1st full-scale remark in this paintings, and the 1st severe variation of the paintings that's knowledgeable by means of an entire research of its transmission.

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Text 2. See also Philippson (1929), Solmsen (1929b), Barnes (1985), 134–5. 19 It is possible that a contemporary of Theophrastus, the Democritean Nausiphanes of Teos (b. 360 bc; his fragments and testimonia are collected as DK62, vol. ii, pp. ), had an interest in Aristotelian rhetorical t opoi. He was the first teacher of Epicurus (cf. Pap. Herc. gai in scientific proofs (Philod. Rhet. cols. xxxviii f. Sudhaus). Unfortunately, the account in Philodemus is very compressed and hostile (Epicurus later disparaged his association with Nausiphanes).

CICERO In Cicero’s de Oratore, written in 55 b c, we find the list of Aristotelian t opoi he would also treat eleven years later in the Topica. Cicero tells us in general terms that they originate from Aristotle (2. 152) and that they are superior to ordinary means of rhetorical invention (sc. ) in that they may be compared to rich streams rather than rivulets like ordinary means of invention (2. 162). , and that his character Antonius in de Orat. claims to have read Rhet. (2. 160); nowhere, however, is the source for the loci identified with either of these works.

To consider whether the accused person can take or could have taken a better course than that which he is recommending or taking, or has taken; if he has not taken this better course, it is clear that he is not guilty, since no one deliberately and consciously chooses what is bad’: trans. Rhys Roberts, revised). 24 Introduction substructure as clearly definable as that of Aristotelian dialectical t opoi (which is not to say that he takes them to have no substructure at all; see below). A further point of contact between Rhet.

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