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A posterior communicating artery; UF unfavorable (GOS 1-3); F favorable (GOS 4-5) at 6 months. Ã GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale. Specimen handling For each patient, serial blood via venipuncture and CSF samples via lumbar puncture at the same time were collected within 3, 5 and 7 days of SAH. From the control group, blood samples were collected via venipuncture, and CSF samples were obtained while the ventriculoperitoneal shunting was performed. The samples from the control group were obtained during shunt surgery.

Electron transfer during normal mitochondrial respiration is accompanied by the leakage of electrons from the transport chain and their subsequent reaction with O2 to produce superoxide. This free radical is normally cleared by superoxide dismutase, but following periods of ischemia, such as those that follow SAH [9, 28, 40], the mitochondria becomes a source of excessive free radical production that cannot be cleared by antioxidant enzymes before they have the potential of causing significant lipid, protein, and DNA damage [19].

Concentrations of sFas and FasL are elevated in both CSF and serum after aneurysmal SAH, but the intriguing finding is their different elevation patterns. FasL was detectable in high amounts in CSF in patients with SAH and showed a continuing elevation in serial measurements. As sFas and FasL were detected in low amounts in serum and showed significant change compared to the control group on day 7 after SAH, it seems that FasL is released by the resident cells of the CNS such as neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in response to SAH.

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