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By S. Dutta

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Derive an expression for the signal-to-noise power ratio including the effects of background power and amplifier noise, assuming a load resistance R and noise temperature TN. 2 What is the signal-noise-limitedNEP. That is, neglect ID and the amplifier noise. 3 What is the background-limited NEP? 4 Problems Vacuum Photodetectors What is the dark-current-limited NEP? 5 What is the amplifier-noise-limited NEP? 6 A photomultiplier with a cutoff wavelength of 1 pm is cooled to reduce the dark-current-limited NEP.

Unfortunately, a rigorous treatment of g-r noise in semiconductors involves the severe complication of several independent generationrecombination processes, each of which involves recombination centers and impurity levels in the bandgap. We shall restrict our treatment to the simple case of one recombination time, either to impurity levels, in the extrinsic case, or directly across the gap in the intrinsic case. We now determine the frequency spectrum of the noise power, realizing that we would expect a spectral shape the same as the power response previously derived.

Specifically, under bias or even at zero bias, there are always several current components flowing across the junction. These include the dark current iD, the photoinduced current, and a forward current iDexp (eV,/kT). Each of these currents produces shot noise, and the noises are statistically independent. Therefore the mean-square noise current It is interesting to consider the noise current at zero bias, in the absence of radiation. This is and if we note that the resistance of the junction at zero bias is given by 1 ei, kT' we obtain for the mean-square noise current where, in the case of the hole current, we have assumed that t << L,.

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