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By Said Amir Arjomand

The most important topic of this e-book is authority in Shi`ism with distinctive emphasis on its institutionalization in several historical classes from the start of Shi`ism within the center a while to the current. half I provides new fabric on vital or overlooked matters which are on the heart of present scholarly debate, together with the elemental dating among wisdom and authority in pristine Shi`ism, points of pop culture in medieval Shi`ism, the institutionalization of non secular authority in Shi`ite Iran from the sixteenth to 18th centuries, and the centralization of non secular authority within the nineteenth century. The editor presents an research of the ideological revolution in Shi`ism throughout the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties. vital files and first resources were chosen for half II representing the main developments within the background of Shi`ism. With exceptions, those assets have neither been to be had in English translation nor simply available within the unique Arabic or Persian. an intensive creation by way of the editor successfully connects elements I and II of the booklet.

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They should also treat the other classes, which are like the four elements, with justice and equity so as to strengthen the order of the kingdom and [thus have] all [their subjects] engaged in praying for the person and benefactions (barakat)of the royal majesty. 59 The traditional theories of kingship were restated in the Qajar period (1786-1925) and remained an important component of the political culture of Shi'ite Iran in the nineteenth century. However, given the dualism of the Qajar structure of authority and the tremendous enhancement of clerical power in the early nineteenth century, the culture of the 'ulama' itself acquired political significance.

See W. C. Chittick's translation in his Shi'ite Anthology (Albany: SUNY Press, 1981), p. 69. 40. See below, p. 252. 41. See below, pp. 274-75. 42. See below, p. 280. 43. Mulla Muhsin Fayd, Kalamat Maknuna (Tehran, 1316/1898-9), p. 195. 44. See below, p. 279. 45. These accusations are as old as the century. Nuri refuted them in 1909 along the same line as Chittick (see below, p. 364). Nevertheless, they have persisted and were voiced with particular vehemence by the late 'Ali Shari'ati (d. 1977).

48. Tradition of the first Imam, 'Ali. (Ghurar al-Hikam) 49. Muhammad Salih b. Muhammad Baqir Qazvini, Hikmat-i Islam, Page 21 J. Muhaddith Urmavi, ed. (Tehran: Bungah-i Tarjuma va Nashr-i Kitab, 1354/ 1975), p. 38. 50. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-'Amili al-'Alavi, Qava'id al-Salatin,Library of the Majlis, Tehran, manuscript # 516, f. 12. 51. , ff. 12-13. 52. Chittick, op. , pp. 71-72. In the Testament of'Ali, the class comprising the cultivators is identified as the taxpayers. It is interesting to note that the fifth class in the Testament consists of the poor and the needy.

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