By T. Edward Damer
More and more collage classes and courses require a severe pondering component--and contain assignments intended to degree your serious considering abilities. ATTACKING defective REASONING: a realistic advisor TO FALLACY-FREE ARGUMENTS, 6th variation, may help brush up on those skills--and how one can strengthen the logical, persuasive arguments you wish now and all through your occupation. this beneficial instruction manual addresses greater than 60 universal fallacies of common sense with the aid of over 2 hundred memorable examples. It presents causes and suggestions for fending off incorrect considering, and is a perfect source while writing papers, essays, or arguments.
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Additional info for Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments
A reason is acceptable if it is the kind of claim that a rational person would accept in the face of all the relevant evidence available. The term “acceptable” is preferable to the more traditional term “true” for several reasons. First, the notion of acceptability stems from the very nature of argumentative interchange. In most argumentative situations, the key to achieving agreement on the conclusion is achieving acceptance of the premises. The arguer typically starts with premises that the skeptic is likely to accept or that a rational person ought to accept.
One should ask several questions when applying the structural principle to a particular argument. Does the argument conform to the fundamental structure of an argument, in that it provides at least one claim (a premise) whose truth might make it more probable that some other claim (the conclusion) is true? Could any of the key premises of the argument be construed as making the same claim as the conclusion? Do any of the premises contradict another premise? Does the conclusion contradict any of the premises?
One commonly accepted criterion for determining the merit of an artist’s work is its enduring appeal to the listening or viewing public. Another companion criterion has to do with whether a particular artist’s work is consistently evaluated positively by experts in the genre. When the criteria are applied to the work-product of the Beatles songwriters, the argument would look something like this: Since a primary determinant of good music is whether it has continued to be positively appreciated over a long period of time by large numbers of people, (aesthetic premise) and a related commonly accepted determinant of the merit of music is whether the music has been consistently praised by experts in the ﬁeld, (aesthetic premise) and experts in the ﬁeld of music have consistently praised the songs of Lennon and McCartney, (premise) and music patrons in large numbers have consistently found a positive aesthetic experience in listening to the songs of these composers, (premise) Therefore, the music of Lennon and McCartney is good music.