By Klaus E. Grossmann PhD, Karin Grossmann PhD, Everett Waters PhD
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Additional info for Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies
One might assume that these findings are due the influence of children’s verbal skills, but this is unlikely because a mother’s elaborative style is evident even before the child can contribute much to the conversation him- or herself. Moreover, the elaborative style is highly compatible with maternal sensitivity as described by Ainsworth, Bell, and The Internal Working Model Construct 33 Stayton (1974), whereas the repetitive style, with its disavowal of the child’s contributions to the conversation, seems much less sensitive and supportive.
A number of studies comparing child–mother and child–father attachments have revealed that attachment security with the mother more consistently and strongly predicts later patterns of relating to peers than attachment security with the father (for a meta-analysis, see van IJzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg, 1996). In other studies, however, two secure relationships predicted better child outcomes than two insecure relationships, with intermediate results when one parent–child relationship is secure and the other insecure.
Bowlby (1973, p. ” Elaborating on the role of language in the building of work- 34 ATTACHMENT FROM INFANCY TO ADULTHOOD ing models, Grossmann (1999) points out that parents who provide misleading explanations, and who either ridicule or taboo discussions about events that have been stressful and traumatic, do not make the world meaningful to their children, leaving them without any corresponding reality or interpretation of their private feelings. Several researchers interested in children as reliable witnesses (of sexual abuse) and traumatic memory (as in posttraumatic stress disorder) have investigated children’s ability to talk about natural disasters and injuries.