By Phillip Clark
Atlas of scientific Avian Hematology is a realistic advisor to the hematological features of birds. Illustrated all through with many colour photos, this wealthy source aids interpretation of hematological info, and promotes the actual class of hematological cells and id of pathological changes.
Covering over a hundred species of birds, the Atlas illustrates the overall hematological features of birds; the hematological adaptations encountered among different Orders of birds; and the hematological responses to affliction of birds, utilizing scientific instances from many species of birds and a number of medical disorders.
- Describes the best way to gather and deal with blood samples from birds to most sensible shield the standard of the blood.
- Highly illustrated, colour consultant to the hematological features of birds
- Case facts and pictures illustrates the avian hematological responses to disease
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Extra resources for Atlas of Clinical Avian Hematology
The erythrocytes from this species have a narrower, more elongated, elliptical shape (compared with the rounded elliptical shape of the cell in the previous figure). Artifactual separation of the nucleus from the cytoplasm is evident. Figures 26 and 27 illustrate the light microscopic appearance of erythrocytes from this species. Figure 49 Erythrocytes from a grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma macroptera gouldi), examined by scanning electron microscopy. Illustrated is the ovoid shape and lack of a distinct central “bulge” and the relatively flat surface of erythrocytes in this species.
Figure 59 Blood from a black-necked aracari (Pteroglossus aracari) showing a hemoglobin crystal (arrow) within an erythrocyte and several mature erythrocytes. ) The bird exhibited only very small numbers of these crystals and consequently they were unlikely to be clinically significant. Figure 60 Blood from an Australian black-shouldered kite (Elanus axillaris) showing a Heinz body (arrow), evident as a rounded protrusion, at the pole of an erythrocyte. ) Heinz bodies represent aggregates of oxidized hemoglobin.
2 General hematological characteristics of birds INTRODUCTION The blood of all birds contains erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes. In contrast to mammals, the mature cells of each of these lines retain their nucleus throughout the life of the cell. The vast majority of avian species require effective circulation of erythrocytes to provide adequate oxygen to the muscles of flight. Furthermore, given their adaptation to extremely disparate environments, from rainforest to desert and sea to mountain, it is no surprise to find physiological differences that may be reflected in the hematological characteristics of individual species.