Download Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx: On Some Fundamental by Spencer J. Pack PDF

By Spencer J. Pack

During this identify, Spencer Pack compares and contrasts Aristotle's, Smith's and Marx's theoretical structures on six basic matters: alternate price, cash, capital, personality, govt, and alter. This ebook additionally offers insights on matters about the carrying on with improvement of worldwide funds, saving, managerial capitalism, corrupt governments, and diverse secular and non secular events for social swap.

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Extra resources for Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx: On Some Fundamental Issues in the 21st Century Political Ecomomy

Example text

However, the human animal has the potential, the power, the capacity, to do much more, much better, than merely sleep (as with the plants), and eat and copulate (as with the animals). Humans can pursue their own specific, higher sorts of excellences or virtues. 2 On Human Consumption Humans, as with plants, live, acquire nourishment and reproduce. As with most animals, they have sense and physical motion; but in addition, we have reason. For Aristotle, ‘Animals lead for the most part a life of nature, although in lesser particulars some are influenced by habit as well.

Now such an animal is man . . man alone partakes of the divine, or at any rate partakes of it in a fuller measure than the rest. (Parts of Animals: 656a) Our ability to walk erect is also indicative that humans share reason with the gods: For of all animals man alone stands erect, in accordance with his god-like nature and substance. For it is the function of the god-like to think and to be wise; and no easy task were this under the burden of a heavy body, pressing down from above and obstructing by its weight the motions of the intellect and of the general sense.

For Aristotle, ‘Animals lead for the most part a life of nature, although in lesser particulars some are influenced by habit as well. Man has reason, in addition, and man only’ (Politics: 1332b). 17 Thus ‘of all animals man alone is capable of deliberation’ and, according to Aristotle, ‘no other creature except man can recall the past at will’ (History of Animals: 488b). Above humans are the gods, and it is reason which the human animal possibly shares with these gods. That is, ‘man and possibly another like man or 17 That Aristotle assumes that there is an intelligible world, and that the human mind can grasp reality and become identical with the forms of reality, see Spellman (1995).

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