By Allen, Barbara Carol; Shli︠a︡pnikov, Aleksandr Gavrilovich; Shli︠a︡pnikov, Aleksandr Gavrilovich; Šljapnikov, Aleksandr G
What emerges from Allen’s political portrait is an outdated Bolshevik who stands in amazing distinction to Stalin’s and the NKVD’s snapshot of the fitting occasion member.
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Additional resources for Alexander Shlyapnikov, 1885-1937 : life of an old Bolshevik
21 Alexander’s relations were much worse with the scripture teacher (‘father deacon’), who threatened the pupils that if they did not attend church, he would ‘strictly punish’ them. When he told his mother about this, she had him read about the early Christian martyrs in Lives of the Saints (a source for the image of the ‘ascetic hero’ in Russian popular literature). Probably intending only to strengthen his faith, his mother nevertheless seems to have helped condition him to challenge authority.
1682–1725) and Catherine ii (r. 1762–96) had introduced higher schools in Russia to educate a small percentage of their subjects. After the Great Reforms of the 1860s–70s, which ended serfdom and attempted to modernise Russia, primary schools expanded rapidly in Russia, as in the rest of Europe. The church, industrial enterprises, charities and local elected bodies of limited self-government [zemstvos] opened schools. 19 During the year before Alexander became eligible to attend school, his mother and older sister taught him his letters at home.
Older workers told the youth that for this ‘truth’ people perished, ground up alive in special mills. Consequently, young workers acquired a reverence for the mysterious ‘black books’ and were eager to have revealed the truth said to be in them. When, at age 14, Shlyapnikov worked in Sormovo factories, he first read revolutionary Marxist literature. 37 They must have found him trustworthy and discreet in order to take such a risk. At Peter’s invitation, Shlyapnikov moved to St. Petersburg towards the end of 1900 and began working with his brother at the Semyannikov (aka Nevsky) factory.