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By John Kendrick

Malaspina arrived in Spain with a systematic history and an ardent curiosity within the philosophy of the Enlightenment. a talented navigator, the Pacific voyage on which he sailed in 1789 was once the final and most crucial of his occupation - a five-year medical and political exam of the Spanish colonies within the Americas and the Philippines. He appraised the British colony at Sydney Cove and Tonga, permitting him to check existence at a spot nearly untouched via ecu touch with the placement within the colonies. Malaspina ultimately lower back to Spain, the place he used to be obtained by way of King Charles IV. He used to be commissioned to supply a piece overlaying all features of his reports that may determine Spain's popularity as a contemporary enlightened nation. Malaspina steered the King that this may be completed provided that he brushed aside all of his ministers and changed them with a slate of Malaspina's making a choice on who could again his visionary principles. This likely naive notion ended in a unanimous vote through the council that his plan used to be fake, seditious, and injurious to the sovereignty in their Majesties, and he was once sentenced to 10 years imprisonment within the fort of San Antón. on the urging of Napoleon he used to be published after 8 years and exiled to Italy, the place he died in 1810, simply because the revolts within the Americas have been beginning, as he had expected. utilizing Malaspina's writings, together with the magazine of his nice voyage and his own letters, John Kendrick makes the lifetime of this awesome guy on hand for the 1st time in English.

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Extra info for Alejandro Malaspina: Portrait of a Visionary

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The San Carlos and other Spanish banks and individuals joined in, and shares were reserved for the Manila merchants. Three months after the charter was granted the company had 1,291 members. The first president was Jose de Gálvez, then minister of the Indies, with Cabarrús as a director. After Gálvez died in 1787 Antonio Valdés was appointed to succeed him. The Philippine Company was given a monopoly on the trade between Manila and Spain, but its mission was to foster agriculture in the Philippines, particularly the growth of sugar and spices, and to halt the drain of silver by developing Manila as a contributor 26 Alejandro Malaspina to the Spanish treasury.

The letter to Viceroy Francisco Gil had no complimentary opening. It read in part: Ship Lieutenant Don Cayetano Valdés will present to Your Excellency with this memorandum an order of His Majesty by which he is permitted to abstract from the Civil Archives all the documents relevant to the commission of the corvettes Descubierta and Atrevida ... This Royal Order will manifest to Your Excellency better than all the reasons that I could put forward, it being the will of His Majesty to combine in the narrative of the voyage whatever can contribute to national knowledge, that we need ...

None of the voyages described in Landín went there. There is some speculation that Magellan either saw or intended to search for them, and they were one of the destinations of a proposed voyage by Hernán Cortes, according to the Portuguese Antonio Galvão, writing circa 1544. 5 Transliterations of Pacific languages often use either "r" or "1," according to the ear of the listener. It is possible that the name Lequio is an attempt to record what is now transliterated as Ryukyu. "Liu-Kiu" is fairly close.

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