By Jean-Michel Savoie, Marie Foulongne-Oriol, Gérard Barroso, Philippe Callac (auth.), Frank Kempken (eds.)
This quantity covers the excessive relevance of fungi for agriculture. it's a thoroughly up to date and revised moment version with fourteen first-class chapters via best scientists of their fields and provides a complete assessment of the newest achievements and advancements.
Topics contain: nutrients and fodder; fungal secondary metabolites and cleansing; biology, ailment regulate and administration; symbiontic fungi and mycorrhiza; and phytopathogenicity.
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In conclusion, the mycelium of A. bisporus is far from a simple vegetative organ. It is treated so as to maintain isolated strains, but in the wild numerous events can occur between strains and modify the genotypes without meiosis. In fact, we found poor evidence of clonality among the studied populations in Europe, even within each site (Xu et al. 2002), with the exception of a site in Portugal where several hundreds of sporophores had the same genotype (unpublished data). Mycelium in the wild generally does not extend in an area larger than 1 m diameter.
M. Savoie et al. var. bisporus (Dickhardt 1985). In var. burnettii, haploid sporophores have been obtained experimentally, but they are weak. Cytological studies have shown that karyogamy and meiosis with synaptonemal complex occur in var. eurotetrasporus as in the two other varieties (Kamzolkina et al. 2006). This homomictic process indicates that the life cycle of A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus is homothallic in the strict sense. The persistence of sexual spores would maintain a better fitness than an asexual process (apomixis) via a more stringent screening for deleterious mutations (Bruggeman et al.
QTL analysis has made it possible to refine the inheritance of this trait. In addition to the major determinant PPC1 which explained 86 % of the phenotypic variability, two minor loci were found on two other chromosomes, confirming the oligogenic control of this trait. These two additional loci contributed to the variability observed for the color gradation of the cap within the brown genotypes (Foulongne-Oriol et al. 2012a). This could be interesting for further breeding purposes, with the renewed attraction of brown mushrooms for the consumer (Robles and Lodder 2009).