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By El Sayed H. El Ashry and Ahmed A. Kassem

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Mitochondria (respiratory organelles) and an internal membrane system known as the endoplasmic reticulum are also common to all eukaryotic cells. Energy-yielding oxidation reactions take place in eukaryotic mitochondria. In prokaryotes, similar reactions occur on the plasma membrane. Ribosomes (particles consisting of RNA and protein), which are the sites of protein synthesis in all living organisms, are frequently bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, ribosomes are found free in the cytosol.

Complete genomes are being obtained for organisms from all three domains. They include those of bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli, the latter being a bacterium in which many biochemical pathways have been investigated. 20). The sequencing of the genomes of the mouse (Mus musculus) and Drosophila melanogaster (a fruit fly) has also been completed, with genome sequences of many more organisms on the way. The most famous of all genome-sequencing projects, that for the human genome, has received wide publicity, with the results now available on the World Wide Web.

Although vacuoles sometimes appear in animal cells, those in plants are more prominent. They tend to increase in number and size as the plant cell ages. An important function of vacuoles is to isolate waste substances that are toxic to the plant and are produced in greater amounts than the plant can secrete to the environment. These waste products may be unpalatable or even poisonous enough to discourage herbivores (plant-eating organisms) from ingesting them and may thus provide some protection for the plant.

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